Meanwhile older hardware from Cupertino like my Macbook Pro (Late 2013) is well supported by most GNU/Linux distributions. It is not anymore a thrilling adventure to get its components working like it used to be a few years ago. They just work out of the box.
What I still find quite challenging is to choose for and set up a working boot process. My goal is to be able to easily boot GNU/Linux as well as macOS. So this is mainly what this HowTo is all about.
Some details about the used hard- and software.
Model-Identifier: MacBookPro11,3 (Late 2013)
macOS Version: 10.12.5 „Sierra“
rEFInd Version: 0.10.8
Debian Installer: Debian 9 „Stretch“ Release Candidate 4
- Make sure to have the latest macOS and Firmware updates installed.
- Make sure to have a recent and complete backup of your files. Seriously.
- An Apple Thunderbolt to Gigabit Ethernet Adapter will make things easier as it works out of the box and you do not have to load any additional drivers/firmware during network setup.
- Two USB sticks for creating the bootable macOS and Debian installers.
- Some experience in installing and working with GNU/Linux in general.
USB Boot/Install Stick Creation
- Create a bootable installer for macOS just in case something goes really wrong.
- Create a bootable installer for Debian via macOS:
- Download the Debian Stretch RC 4 Mac Netinstaller ISO, e.g. via this URL: debian-mac-stretch-DI-rc4-amd64-netinst.iso
- Create a bootable installer for Debian via Terminal:
sudo dd if=debian-mac-stretch-DI-rc4-amd64-netinst.iso of=/dev/diskX bs=1m. DiskX is the assigned disk identifier of your second USB stick that should become the Debian installer. The easiest way to find out is via Disk Utility.
- As soon as the creation process has successfully finished, macOS will probably tell you something about a non-initialized disk and offer you to do so. Ignore it, everything is fine and you should just eject it.
Prepare for Partitioning
I prefer the following partitioning schema on a 512 GB hard disk:
- 350 GB for macOS
- The rest, about 150 GB, for GNU/Linux
- 35 GB as ext4 for
- 16 GB for
- 8 GB as HFS+ for data exchange between bother OS
- The rest, about 90 GB, as ext4 for
- 35 GB as ext4 for
To achieve this the following steps are required:
- Turn off FileVault disk encryption in case you are using it. Only then you will be able to resize your existing macOS partition to provide some space to GNU/Linux.
- Use macOS’s Disk Utility to resize your existing macOS partition. I for myself just added a second one with the envisaged disk space of 150 GB. During the partitioning process of Debian this should then be deleted and replaced by the outlined individual GNU/Linux system partitions.
Installing Debian GNU/Linux 9 „Stretch“
- Attach the created Debian installer USB stick and reboot your system while holding down the command key.
- The macOS boot manager should come up offering you beside booting macOS an additional option to boot „Windows“. This is actually your Debian installer.
- Choose the graphical install method.
- Follow the usual installation process with one exception. At the end do not install GRUB. It just won’t be of any use.
- For now you will not be able to boot your GNU/Linux. That is as expected. The boot manager rEFInd will take care of that in a minute.
Installing rEFInd Boot Manager
- Boot into macOS’s recovery mode. This is required because only then Apple’s SIP can be deactivated to prevent any interference with the rEFInd installation procedure.
- Open a terminal and issue the command
csrutil disablethat will deactivate SIP.
- Reboot into macOS. Download the latest binary of rEFInd and unzip it somewhere.
- Open a terminal and navigate to the unzipped rEFInd binary.
./refind-installand carefully check that it completes successfully.
- For details please refer to the original documentation: „Installing rEFInd“
By now you should be able to choose if you want to boot either macOS or even better GNU/Linux. So give it a try and reboot. rEFInd should come up offering you both options. Now let’s continue to finalize things.
Disk Encryption and Reactivation of SIP
- Boot into macOS and turn FileVault back on. Ideally wait until background encryption has finished.
- Boot back into macOS’s recovery mode and issue the command
csrutil enablethat will reactivate SIP.
- Boot into Debian and activate the transparent encryption for the user’s home folder(s).
Installing missing drivers
Note: You will need to use non-free software to be able to use your Wifi interface or run the official nVidia driver. To do so activate the
non-free packages sources.
- Wifi interface (Broadcom BCM4360): Install Broadcom’s binary-only driver via
apt-get install broadcom-sta-dkms. (brcm80211 does not work with this specific chip.)
- Grahpics card (NVIDIA GeForce GT 750M): In case you are experiencing issues with nouveau or just want to use the official NVIDIA driver you can install it via
apt-get install nvidia-driver. Reboot the system afterwards.
- To access unencrypted HFS+ volumes like the main macOS partition you could use hfsprogs via
apt-get install hfsprogs. As I suggested to turn FileVault back on, the volume is encrypted and naturally not that easily accessible. Still there is an experimental library available that could help you here: libfvde.
- Your keyboard back-light is not working? Well, why don’t you just switch it on by using the dedicated function keys?
- I am still not able to use the keyboard map that corresponds to my built in keyboard.
dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configurationusually helps in choosing the right configuration.
service keyboard-setup restartthen activates the new configuration.
- Proper fan control would be could because it sometimes gets slightly hot.
- If you think you have messed up somehow the original macOS boot configuration, you could reset your Mac’s NVRAM. Typically macOS becomes bootable again and rEFInd is gone.
- A macOS upgrade or re-installation or resetting the NVRAM is said to very likely interfere with your rEFInd boot manager. So the easiest thing is to just re-install it (just rEFInd) as described above. Do not forget to disable SIP during the installation. More details can be found at „Keeping rEFInd Booting“.
- In the worst case you still have the bootable macOS installer USB stick and your backup. Don’t you?
Further reading and original sources
2017-Jun-07: Initial publication